Episode 18 -Rules of Madd (Elongation) I/nLetters of Madd — وي ا, preceded by fat’ha, kasra, or dhamma, in that order, respectively/nNatural Madd — occurs when a letter of madd is neither preceded nor followed by hamza or sukoon; 2 harakas/nMadd al-`Iwadh (Replacement Madd) — when stopping on a double fat’ha, it becomes a natural mad/nMadd al-Badal (Substitution Madd) — hamza occurs before madd; 2 harakas